学习啦——方法网 > 初中学习方法 > 初三学习方法 > 初三英语 > 《初中英语知识点总结 大全》正文

初中英语知识点总结 大全

时间:2016-06-16 15:15:52本文内容及图片来源于读者投稿,如有侵权请联系xuexila888@qq.com 如英 我要投稿

  英语知识点是英语学习中一个重要的组成部分,下面是学习啦小编为大家带来的初中英语知识点总结,相信对你会有帮助的。

  初中英语知识点总结:被动语态

  初中英语学习最难的是语法,因为英语的语法跟汉语的语法有很大的不同。其中被动语态是初中英语学习的重点和难点。下面为大家讲解一下初中英语被动语态特点和用法。

  一、被动语态的构成形式

  1. 被动语态的基本时态变化

  被动语态通常为十种时态的被动形式, 被动语态由be+过去分词构成,be随时态的变化而变化。以do为例,各种时态的被动语态形式为:

  1) am/is/are +done (过去分词) 一般现在时

  例Visitors are requested not to touch the exhibits.

  2) has /have been done 现在完成时

  例All the preparations for the task have been completed, and we're ready to start.

  3) am/is /are being done 现在进行时

  例A new cinema is being built here.

  4) was/were done 一般过去时

  例I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should reject the offer.

  5) had been done 过去完成时

  例 By the end of last year, another new gymnasium had been completed in Beijing.

  6) was/were being done 过去进行时

  例A meeting was being held when I was there.

  7) shall/will be done 一般将来时

  例Hundreds of jobs will be lost if the factory closes.

  8) should/would be done 过去将来时

  例The news would be sent to the soldier's mother as soon as it arrived.

  9) shall/will have been done 将来完成时(少用)

  例The project will have been completed before July.

  2. 被动语态的特殊结构形式

  1)带情态动词的被动结构。其形式为:情态动词+be+过去分词。

  例The baby should be taken good care of by the baby-sitter.

  2) 有些动词可以有两个宾语,在用于被动结构时,可以把主动结构中的一个宾语变为主语,另一宾语仍然保留在谓语后面。通常变为主语的是间接宾语。

  例His mother gave him a present for his birthday. 可改为 He was given a present by his mother for his birthday.

  3) 当“动词+宾语+宾语补足语”结构变为被动语态时,将宾语变为被动结构中的主语,其余不动。

  例Someone caught the boy smoking a cigarette. 可改为The boy was caught smoking a cigarette.

  4)在使役动词have, make, get以及感官动词see, watch, notice, hear, feel, observe等后面不定式作宾语补语时,在主动结构中不定式to要省略,但变为被动结构时,要加to。

  例Someone saw a stranger walk into the building. 可改为A stranger was seen to walk into the building.

  5) 有些相当于及物动词的动词词组,如“动词+介词”,“动词+副词”等,也可以用于被动结构,但要把它们看作一个整体,不能分开。其中的介词或副词也不能省略。

  例The meeting is to be put off till Friday.

  3. 非谓语动词的被动语态

  v.+ing 形式及不定式 to do 也有被动语态(一般时态和完成时态) 。

  二、 如何使用被动语态

  学习被动语态时,不仅要知道被动语态的各种语法结构,还要知道在哪些情况中使用被动语态。

  1. 讲话者不知道动作的执行者或不必说出动作的执行者 (这时可省 by 短语)。

  例 My bike was stolen last night.

  2. 借助被动的动作突出动作的执行者。

  例 I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should accept the offer.

  3. 为了更好地安排句子。

  例The well-known person got on the bus and was immediately recognized by people. (一个主语就够了)

  三、 It is said that+从句及其他类似句型

  一些表示“据说”或“相信”的动词如believe, consider, expect, report, say, suppose, think等可以用于句型“It+be+过去分词+that从句”或“主语+be+过去分词+to do sth.”。有:

  It is said that… 据说,It is reported that…据报道,It is believed that…大家相信,It is hoped that…大家希望,It is well known that…众所周知,It is thought that…大家认为,It is suggested that…据建议。

  例It is said that the boy has passed the national exam. (=The boy is said to have passed the national exam. )

  四、谓语动词的主动形式表示被动意义

  1.英语中有很多动词如 break,catch,clean,drive,lock,open,sell,read,write,wash等,当它们被用作不及物动词来描述主语特征时,常用其主动形式 表达被动意义,主语通常是物。

  例 This kind of cloth washes well.

  注意:主动语态表被动强调的是主语的特征,而被动语态则强调外界作用造成的影响。

  试比较:The door won't lock. (指门本身有毛病)

  The door won't be locked. (指不会有人来锁门, 指“门没有锁”是人的原因)

  2. 表示“发生、进行”的不及物动词和短语,如:happen, last, take place, break out, come out, come about, come true, run out, give out, turn out等以主动形式表示被动意义。

  例 How do the newspapers come out? 这些报纸是如何引出来的呢?

  3. 系动词没有被动形式, 但有些表示感受、感官的连系动词feel, sound, taste, book, feel等在主系表结构中常以主动形式表示被动意义。

  例Your reason sounds reasonable

  五、非谓语动词的主动形式表被动意义

  在某些句型中可用动名词和不定式的主动形式表被动意义 。

  1. 在need,want,require, bear等词的后面,动名词用主动形式表示被动意义,其含义相当于动词不定式的被动形式。

  例The house needs repairing(to be repaired).这房子需要修理。

  2. 形容词worth后面跟动名词的主动形式表示被动含义,但不能跟动词不定式;而worthy后面跟动词不定式的被动形式。

  例The picture-book is well worth reading.(=The picture-book is very worthy to be read.)

  3. 动词不定式在名词后面作定语,不定式和名词之间有动宾关系时,又和句中另一名词或代词构成主谓关系, 不定式的主动形式表示被动含义。

  例 I have a lot of things to do this afternoon. (to do与things是动宾关系,与I是主谓关系。)

  试比较:I’ll go to the post office. Do you have a letter to be posted? ( 此处用不定式的被动语态作定语表明you不是post动作的执行者。)

  4. 在某些“形容词+不定式”做表语或宾语补足语的结构中,句子的主语或宾语又是动词不定式的逻辑宾语时,这时常用不定式的主动形式表达被动意义。这些形容词有nice,easy,fit,hard,difficult,important,impossible,pleasant,interesting等。

  例This problem is difficult to work out .(可看作to work out省略了for me).

  5. 在too… to…结构中,不定式前面可加逻辑主语,所以应用主动形式表示被动意义。

  例This book is too expensive (for me) to buy.

  6. 在there be…句型中,当动词不定式修饰名词作定语时,不定式用主动式作定语,重点在人,用被动形式作定语,重点在物。

  例There is no time to lose(to be lost).(用 to lose可看成for us to lose;用to be lost,谁 lost time不明确。)

  7. 在be to do结构中的一些不定式通常应用主动表主动, 被动表被动。然而,由于古英语的影响,下列动词rent,blame,let等仍用不定式的主动形式表示被动意义。

  例 Who is to blame for starting the fire?

  初中英语知识点总结:句型结构

  初中英语语法中,有很多特殊句型结构,牢记这些句型结构,以后再运用上就可以得心应手。下面是初中英语重点句型结构总结,希望能帮助到大家。

  1 、see,hear,notice,find,feel,listen to,look at (感官动词)+ do eg: I like watching monkeys jump.

  2 (比较级 and 比较级) 表示越来越……

  3 a piece of cake =easy 小菜一碟(容易) 补:a place of interest 名胜

  4 agree with sb. 赞成某人

  5 all kinds of 各种各样 a kind of 一种/样

  6 all over the world = the whole world 整个 世界

  7 along with 同……一道,伴随…… eg : I will go along with you 我将和你一起去The students planted trees along with their teachers. 学生同老师们一起种树。

  8 As soon as 一……就……

  9 as you can see 你是知道的

  10 ask for ……求助 向……要……(直接接想要的东西) eg: ask you for my book

  11 ask sb. for sth. 向某人什么

  12 ask sb. to do sth. 询问某人某事 ask sb. not to do sth. 叫某人不要做某事

  13 at the age of 在……岁时eg:I am sixteen. I am at the age of sixteen.

  14 at the beginning of … ……的起初;……的开始

  15 at the end of +地点/+时间 最后;尽头;末尾 eg : At the end of the day

  16 at this time of year 在每年的这个时候 补:at least 至少

  17 be /feel confident of sth. /that clause + 从句 感觉/对什么有信心,自信 eg: I am / feel confident of my spoken English I feel that I can pass the test

  18 be + doing 表:1 现在进行时 2 将来时

  19 be able to (+ v.原) = can (+ v.原) 能够……eg: She is able to sing. She can sing. 补:base on 以……(为)根据

  20 be able to do sth. 能够干什么 eg: She is able to sing.

  21 be afraid to do (of sth. 恐惧,害怕……eg: I'm afraed to go out at night. I'm afraid of dog.

  22 be allowed to do 被允许做什么 eg: I'm allowed to watch TV. 我被允许看电视。I should be allowed to watch TV. 我应该被允许看电视。

  23 be angry with sb. 生某人的气 eg: Don't be angry with me.

  24 be angry with (at) sb. for doing sth. 为什么而生某人的气

  25 be as … 原级 … as 和什么一样 eg: She is as tall as me. 她和我一样高。

  26 be ashamed to

  27 be away from 远离

  28 be away from 从……离开

  29 be bad for 对什么有害eg: Reading books in the sun is bad for your eyes. 在太阳下看书对你的眼睛不好。

  30 be born 出生于

  31 be busy doing sth. 忙于做什么事 be busy with sth. 忙于……

  32 be careful 当心;小心 be close to … 离……很近

  33 be different from … 和……不一样

  34 be famous for 以……著名

  35 be friendly to sb 对某人友好

  36 be from = come from 来自eg:He is from Bejing. He comes from Bejing.Is he from Bejing? Does he come from Bejing?

  37 be full of 装满……的 be filled with 充满eg: the glass is full of water the glass is filled with water

  38 be glad + to do/从句 做某事很高兴

  39 be going to + v.(原) 打算,计划,准备……

  40 be good at(+ doing) = do well in 在某方面善长, 善于……

  41 be good for 对什么有好处eg: Reading aloud is good for your English.

  42 be happy to do 很高兴做某事

  43 be helpful to sb. 对某人有好处eg: Reading aloud is helpful to you. 大声朗读对你有好处。Exercising is helpful to your bady. 锻炼对你的身体有好处。

  44 be in good health 身体健康

  45 be in trouble 处于困难中 eg : She is in trouble They are in tronble

  46 be interested in 对某方面感兴趣

  47 be late for = come late to 迟到 eg: Be late for class 上课迟到

  48 be like 像…… eg: I'm like my mother.

  49 be mad at 生某人的气

  50 be made from 由……制成(制成以后看不见原材料) 补:be made in 在……生产或制造

  51 be made of 由……制成(制成以后还看得见原材料)

  52 be not sure 表不确定

  53 be on a visit to 参观

  54 be popular with sb. 受某人欢迎 补:be please with 对…感到满意

  55 be quiet 安静

  6 be short for 表……的缩写 eg: 陶 is short for 陶俊杰

  57 be sick in bed 生病在床

  58 be sorry to do sth. be sorry for sb. eg: I am sorry for you.

  59 be sorry to hear that

  60 be sorry to trouble sb.eg: I am sorry to trouble you.

  61 be strict in doing sth. 严于做某事 eg: He's strict in obeying noles

  62 be strict with sb. 对某人要求严格eg: Some students are not strict with them selves. 这些学生对自己不严格。

  63 be strict with sb in sth. 某方面对某人严格

  64 be supposed to do 被要求干什么

  65 be sure 表确定

  66 be sure of doing sth. 对做某事有信心eg: He is sure of winning I am sure of learning English well

  67 be sure of sth. 对做某事有信心eg: I'm sure of my head (my teacher). 我相信我的大脑(老师)。

  68 be sure that sth. 对做某事有信心eg: I'm suer that he can pass the test. 我相信他能通过考试。

  69 be sure to do sth. 一定会做某事 eg: We are sure to pass the test. 我们一定会通过这次考试We are sure to learn English well. 我们一定能学好英语。

  70 be terrified of + 名/动 doing 害怕……

  71 be terrified to do sth. 害怕做某事

  72 be the same as … 和什么一样

  73 be used to doing sth. 习惯做某事 eg: My father is used to getting up early. 我爸爸习惯早起。He is used to sleeping in class. 他习惯上课睡觉.He is used to working hard.He is used to hard work. 他习惯努力工作

  74 be worth doing 值得做什么

  75 be (feel) afraid to do sth. 害怕做某事

  be afraid of sth. 害怕某物 be afraid that 丛句

  76 because + 句子 because of + 短语

  eg: He was late because he had a headache.

  He was late because of his headache.

  77 begin to do = start to do 开始做某事

  start … with … = begin … with … 以……开始……

  eg: Let's begin the game with the song. I begin to go home.

  78 between … and … 两者之间

  79 borrow sth. from sb. 向……借……

  lend sth. to sb. lend sb. sth. 借给……什么东西

  eg: I borrowed a pen from him. He lent a pen to me (he lent me a pen).

  80 both = the same (as) = not different (from) 表相同

  81 bother 打扰 bother sb. to do sth. 补:both … and … ……和……都

  eg : I'm sorry to bother you ,but can you tell me to way to the station

  我十分道歉打扰你,但是你能告诉我怎么去车站

  The problem has been bothering me for weeks. 这个问题困扰了我几个周了。

  He's bothering me to lend him money.

  82 by the end of 到……为止

  83 call sb. sth. eg: We call him old wang.

  84 care 关心

  eg: Don't you care about this country's future? 你为什么不关心国家的未来。

  85 catch up with sb. 赶上某人

  86 chat with sb. 和某人闲谈 take sb. to + 地点 带某人去某地

  87 come in 进来

  88 come over to 过来

  89 come up with 提出 eg: Can you come up with a good idea? 你能想出一个好办法吗?

  90 communicate with sb. 和某人交流

  91 consider + doing 考虑做……

  eg: Why not consider going to lu zhou? 为什么不考虑去泸州?

  92 dance to 随着……跳舞 eg: She likes dancing to the music. 她喜欢随着音乐跳舞。

  93 decide to do sth. 决定做某事

  94 do a survey of 做某方面的调查

  95 do better in 在……方面做得更好 补:do well in 在……方面干的好

  96 do wrong 做错 补:droup off 放下(某物)

  97 Don't forget to do sth. 不要忘了做某事。

  98 Don't mind +doing /从句 /名词. 不要介意……。

  99 each + 名(单)每一个……

  eg: Each student has many books. 每一个学生都有一些书。

  100 end up + doing

看过“初中英语知识点总结 ”的人还看了:

1.英语知识大全

2.初中英语八种时态归纳复习

3.人教版初中英语重点短语大全

4.初三英语知识点总结

5.初一英语下册知识点归纳

Copyright @ 2006 - 2018 学习啦 All Rights Reserved

学习啦 版权所有 粤ICP备15032933号-1

学习啦 学习啦

回到顶部